Green Steps Partner is a Non-profit organization engaged in environmental activism and Green Steps Consortium (http://www.greenstepspartner.com/) is a consulting firm involved in providing advisory and training services to corporations that are interested in adopting green practices. It is a group of environmental activists, environment conscious professionals, friends, and colleagues in the world of international development who are involved in climate change issues. The organization aims to commit towards creating an environment conducive to good health of people and animals, raising awareness and campaigning for access to clean water and also to ensure clean air for all communities and Recognizing and acting on the need to adapt to climate change.
Most of the environmental problems that we see today often arise from a lack of awareness; therefore raising awareness about environmental issues is a responsibility that our generation cannot deny. Green Steps Partner Inc. will work to increase awareness about the effects of pollution and how people can curb pollution and reduce their carbon footprint. It does not cost much to be environment-friendly. Whatever we can do today to preserve the environment will have a lasting impact for future generations.
We believe in sustainable living where more people live close to the nature and this is a change that is necessary in order to save our planet. Green Steps Partner (http://www.greenstepspartner.com/) is aiming to take steps with you and your help towards building a cleaner and greener world for all. Your Donations at our organization (http://www.greenstepspartner.com/donate) can make a World of difference. By choosing to donate, you will prove to be an environmentally responsible individual. Becoming a donor is the easiest and most effective way to make a difference every day. Giving a donation is also the best way to help our future generations and our children to a happy life. Your donation goes straight to our research fund to build a better sustainable world for everyone to live in. Stepping towards a greener world will help you to save money and lead a sustainable healthy life.
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Due to economic development, industrialization and increasing population, problems related to the expanded consumption and depletion of resources, and the increased output of wide-ranging types of waste are becoming more serious than ever. Technologies for material and energy utilization of solid waste that allow obtaining volume reduction, material and energy recovery, should be introduced.
The Promotion of Sorted Collection and Recycling Containers and Packaging should be introduced everywhere to collect recyclable resources. Under the 3R policy (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle); plastic bottles, food trays, and cans should be collected separately for reuse as recycle resources in the manufacturing of new products. After cleaning the bottles will be compressed, bound and passed on to reproduction contractors. The remaking of used plastic bottles can lead into new plastic bottles by combining material recycle method and chemical recycle method. With the material recycle method, collected bottles are washed, dissolved under high temperature and filtered to reproduce high quality plastic resin. This reproduction can lead to an approximately 90% reduction in the use of petroleum-derived resources and a 60% reduction in CO2 emission.
Some waste generated from medical institutes may be contagious. In order to avoid contamination, plastic containers, cardboard boxes and metal containers are used to dispose of medical waste to prevent contact and assure safety for workers.
Conversion of waste into biogas is the most practical solution in developing countries. Biogas is a result of a naturally working process, where micro-organisms degrade the organic matter under anaerobic conditions. A well-managed methane digester can produce approximately its own volume of biogas each day. Biogas is viewed as an innovative and most promising option toward a partial mitigation of the existing energy problems in developing countries. The economy of biogas plant is characterized by notable investment cost, couple of operation and maintenance costs, mostly practice free raw materials like- animal dung, poultry litter, aquatic weeds, industrial wastage, terrestrial plants, sewage sludge, etc. and finally income generate from the forming of the gas. Waste treatment, such as composting and methane fermentation should be introduced too.
Introducing bioreactor; that is typically defined as a Municipal Solid Waste landfill where enhanced microbial processes are used to expedite waste decomposition and biological stabilization. To properly manage the stabilization process, certain system design and operational modifications are required. A bioreactor landfill employs the addition of liquid and air into the landfill cell to enhance microbial processes. The most common liquid re-circulated in bioreactor landfills is leachate, but other liquids may be added to account for lack of moisture in the waste mass.
Another process is Pyrolysis which is the thermal degradation of carbon-based materials through the use of an indirect, external source of heat, typically at temperatures of 450 to 750°C, in the absence or almost complete absence of free oxygen to produce a carbonaceous char, oils and combustible gases. This drives off the volatile portions of the organic materials, resulting in a syngas composed primarily of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and complex hydrocarbons.
Incineration is a process that can be used to treat different types of waste including municipal solid waste and industrial solid waste. The method could be applied for the treatment of mixed solid waste as well as for the treatment of pre-selected waste.
Technologies like -Composting, gasification, pyrolysis and incineration are waste minimization technologies. Thermal waste treatment technologies allow to obtained volume reduction and energy recovery. The energy produce by solid waste treatment contribute for the use of less fossil fuels and can help meet renewable energy targets as a consequence of global warning problem. With thermal treatment technologies the hazard components of solid waste are converted in non- hazard, what makes these technologies environmentally friendly.
What environmental law(s) or regulation(s) do you wish Bangladesh had so that the environment would be cleaner?
Bangladesh has serious concerns of environmental degradation, climate change impact on development potentials, and increasing social inequity and disparity. Given the complexities of high population density, the increasing challenges of climate change impacts, rapid urbanization, infrastructure development and connectivity, the country will have little choice but to follow the path of sustainable development.
Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act 1995 covers most of the sectorial laws in the country in line with the Environment Policy, 1992; Environment Action Plan, 1992 Rio declaration 1992, the Stockholm Conference 1972; the UNFCCC 1992, Kyoto Protocol 1987, Johannesburg Conference 2002 etc. But the conservation Act 1995 doesn’t work properly due to the non-coordination, shortage of expertise, lack of commitments, corruption, in this regard. These problems should be solved by enacting coordinating Act and developing other mechanism. It can be said; the environmental laws of Bangladesh crystallize the need for establishment of environmental tribunals as the existing civil courts lack in environmental expertise and dispense delayed justice.
The Environment Court is a new and remarkable dimension for the protection of the environment in Bangladesh. The appropriate judicial response and enforcement measures should be highly needed at present. It has been observed that the Environment Court Act almost depends on the Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act in 1995 and the Environmental Conservation Rules in 1997. It also depends on the Code of Civil and Criminal Procedure for the execution of the
environmental offences. Besides, it almost depends on the Director General Department of Environment. The Environment Court Act needs a comprehensive studies comparing with the
relevant environmental legislations along with the judicial decisions around the world. It is also suggested that; in order to frame and revise this Act, the government should consult with the some relevant stakeholders such as the IUCN, WWF E-Law etc.; in this regard.
Lack of enforcement of rules and regulations has aggravated the environmental problems. Bangladesh government has revised their relevant policies, enacted rules and regulation in these areas. In some cases, NGOs and civil society organizations are working as close partners and sometimes as pressure groups for better management of natural resources, conservation of environment and pollution control. Often there is a lack of political commitment, skilled human resources and institutional capacity to ensure proper enforcement of rules and regulations for pollution control and conservation of environment. Private sectors are often not following the environmental rules and regulations. The protection of environmental resources and urban environment remain the great challenges. They must uphold and promote Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibilities (CSER) for private sectors to comply with it while undertaking all the economic activities. The Government has to force them to maintain and comply with CSER. But primarily adhere to the environmental acts, by-laws; EIA guidelines and implementation are must for all agencies including government, private sector, civil society and all citizens. In some cases the judiciary takes appropriate environment decisions. But court orders have not been implemented in some cases.
Awareness at individual, family and community level also can improve governance and help to conserve environment. The local government institutions and civil society groups must play a strong and pro-active role in environmental management, conservation and promoting environmental governance. The local government bodies such as Union Parishad, Upazila, City Corporation and Municipalities can play vital role in pollution control, conservation of environment, disaster management, adaptation, and mitigation efforts of reducing climate risks. The NGOs are active development partners in Bangladesh and are involved in poverty alleviation, agricultural development, social safety nets, disaster risk reduction and health services in Bangladesh. To achieve better environmental governance in a short period should be achieved by taking a participatory and an inclusive approach.
Good habits to reduce trash or increase recycling:
One significant way that everyone can contribute to environmental conservation is through waste reduction. This can be done by all waste generators, from big companies to small households. By reducing waste, the amount and toxicity of waste that is generated will similarly be reduced. Also reducing waste at the source, we can be a lot closer to a greener and cleaner environment.
The use of plastic is one the world has come to really rely on. The plastic bags we use to weigh produce and carry our groceries have a significant negative impact on our environment. Around the world, 160,000 plastic bags are used every second, and each bag can take 1,000 years to biodegrade. Most plastics can be recycled but unlike aluminum, its quality might not remain the same and cannot be recycled over and over again. Recycling over and over might affect the integrity of the product but the use of a percentage of recycled material is encouraged and in some cases, plastics can be 100% recyclable. In order to make recycling easy, it is encouraged to use fewer kinds of plastic materials for the different parts of a product and the parts should be labeled correctly to enable the sorting process at the end of life.
Choosing products packed in paper; instead of plastic is another way. Cardboard and other paper products are far easier to recycle than plastic. When available, buy products like laundry detergent or pasta in paper boxes instead of plastic bags and bottles.
Waste reduction starts at home. If we consider not buying things that we don’t need and when some items are no longer in use, we can think about how best to dispose of them. Not everything should go into the garbage. One can make a significant difference by playing an active role in minimizing like - Use reusable bags and containers when shopping, traveling, or packing lunches or leftovers. Donating is a way to make it possible to reuse clothing and household items that have reached the end of their life cycle. Items that are still usable can have a fresh start with a new person. Consider carefully the condition of an item before tossing it in the garbage.
Waste reduction requires changes in the way that products are designed, manufactured, purchased and used. Source reduction is proven to be the most effective waste management strategy. Providing suggestions on how households, institutions and businesses can start changing the habits of disposing waste and shift to new ways that can reduce waste creation.
Reduce household waste by composting fallen leaves, branches and other woody material. Reduce organic waste even further by adding food scraps to the yard waste in a compost bin to create rich, beneficial compost material for your lawn and garden. In addition to saving money, eliminating waste usually leads to an elimination of harmful chemicals in our home, as well.
Enforcing environmental laws is one of the important parts to protect human health and the environment of a country. Environmental governance is essential to make institutions, private sectors and individuals responsible for conservation of natural resources, environment and avoiding unnecessary pollution of land, water, air and ecosystems. It is important to ensure compliance with environmental requirements. To protect communities disproportionately affected by pollution, the government needs to ensure the enforcement and compliance program planning and its implementation. And also identifying cases to pursue and developing solutions to benefit overburdened communities.
Environmental Laws are for the conservation and protection of the environment and ecology. These laws lay down the rights and duties of citizens and public agencies in consonance with the global call for a healthy environment. Environmental laws existed in the country right from the 19th century; although they remained either unenforced to a large extent or were inaccurately known to the people and the responsible public agencies. The prevailing traditional practices were not conducive to environmental protection or conservation of resources. Bangladesh has inherited its legal system known as common law system from the British colonial rulers which was introduced in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. However, the government passed a national conservation strategy, adopted the national environment policy of 1992 and revised the old law by enacting the Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act, 1995 the only law which provides a direct address of environment. This law says about some specific matters very shortly and does not define the environment in its wider sense.
The Environmental Conservation Act, Environmental Conservation Rules, and National Water Policy have adequate clauses relating to industrial pollution. This includes water quality protection, effluent discharge monitoring, zoning regulations for new industries and strengthening of the regulatory system for agrochemical pollution control. Through the Bangladesh Environment Management Program (BEMP) and the Sustainable Environmental Management Program (SEMP), the DoE is currently working towards improved water quality monitoring, and estimation of pollution loads in rivers and watercourses, as well as trying to strengthen the institutional arrangements through which these will occur.
About Compensation, the environmental court firstly determines the loss and then imposes compensation on the liable party. In the environment Conservation Act 1995, the provision of compensation is included in section 9. It enumerates about the liability of a person
who discharges excessive environmental pollutant. He has to pay to the director
general to give it to the affected party the expenses to control and mitigate the
pollution. Another provision is enumerated in section 7, where it is said that the persons who damages the ecosystem and fails to comply with the direction of the Director General,
a suit for compensation can be filed against him. The main feature of compensation is
that it is for liquidated damages. There are Punishments for crime or offences against environmental legislation. Punishment can be given for- Pollutant emissions to air, water or soil; Trade in endangered species; Improper disposal of wastes. The Environment conservation Act 1995, provides punishment for the violation its provisions in section 15. The highest punishment provided by this section is imprisonment for 10 years and fine of 10,00,000 taka.
Under the Environment Conservation Act 1995, the director general may take such measures as he considers necessary and expedient for the conservation of the environment and improvement of environmental standards and for the control and mitigation of environmental pollution, and he may issue necessary directions in writing to any person for the discharge of his duties under this Act. The Director General may also issue directions in the nature of Closure, Prohibition, or
Regulation of any Industry, undertaking and or processes and the concerned persons will be bound to comply with such directions.
Bangladesh Environmental Law also follows National Environmental Policy 1992, National Environmental Management Plan 1995, Environmental Conservation Act and Rules and a few more Policies, Rules and Acts. All these provide the definition of offences and wrongs and their punishment and penalties. Along with that they provide procedure as well as authorities to enforce the law and getting redress by those laws.
Rasel lived here since he remembered. He said he is from Barisal District as for most Eids, he and his family travels to village. Rasel claimed to be 15 but looked younger. He was excited about the interview and assisted Green Steps Partner with the survey. Even though he is young, but he is a good observant of his neighbourhood and has a good insight into all the occurrences in the area as well as the water crisis.
We asked him about the living condition in this area, he replied, ‘sir, we have crisis of hygienic water’ and with a sad face he said, ‘we don’t want anything else, we just want hygienic water, if we get that we’ll be happy’. He mentioned the water he drinks smells even after boiling it properly! He mentioned as his family is below ultra-poor-level, they sometimes drink this contaminated unhygienic water without even boiling it. The stove where they boil water is shared by 10 other families, it is either used for boiling water or for cooking!
It was hard for us to hear when he said, ‘I have accepted the fact that I am prone to water-borne diseases’. We are living in an era where technology is evolving every day and we cannot even supply clean water to people in need! This is a question for all the readers, should we ignore these people because they live under poverty or should we take immediate steps to do something for them! You tell us!
Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh has a fairly long history. Its existence in the pre-Muslim period cannot be ascertained with certainty. But it grew as an urban centre in the Sultanate period and rose into prominence in the Mughal period when it enjoyed the position of a provincial capital. Its history has here been dealt with in two sections: Dhaka up to 1800 AD and Dhaka since 1800 AD. Its physical growth has been dealt with in the context of its history in the last section. Dhaka up to 1800 AD was a place of some importance in the pre-Mughal period, but it came to the limelight of history under the Mughals.
Situated on the water routes Dhaka was a center of local trade even in the pre-Mughal period. With the transfer of capital there, its population increased; along with the army, navy and people connected with administration came the artisans, manufacturers and other professional groups. Dhaka witnessed brisk trading activities of provincial, inter-provincial and foreign merchants including those from Arabia, Persia, Armenia, China, Malaya, Java and Sumatra. The Buriganga and her mother river Dhaleswari connect Dhaka to the great rivers and through them with almost all districts of Bengal. The old city of Dhaka was small, centering round Pakurtali (modern Babubazar area), but on becoming the capital of the Mughal Subah the city was extended along the bank of the river from the fort in the west to modern Sadarghat in the east.
Today Dhaka and its surroundings are one of the largest industrial regions of the country, producing varieties of goods and manufactures, from traditional products like textiles, silver and gold ornaments to modern electronic goods - many of these under the joint venture system. There are also industrial zones devoted exclusively to the manufacture of goods for export. These export promotion zones manufacture high-tech goods in particular. The most important industrial activity for which Dhaka has created an important place for itself on the world market in recent years is the garment industry, producing textile and woolen goods on an order basis from foreign buyers. The garments industry is now the highest foreign exchange earner of the country and the city has almost 80% of the total garments factories of the country, employing thousands of workers, especially women. Dhaka is also now a major producer of leather goods.
Dhaka has also become one of the most important commercial centers in the country. There is brisk trade both in local and foreign products, ranging from high tech goods to cosmetics. The city is now dotted with several multi-storied modern shopping centers where varieties of goods are sold. The modern shops are gradually replacing the old-fashioned shops and markets. The city proper stretched seven to ten miles along the Buriganga and up to two and a half miles inland. The suburbs extended from the Buriganga to the Tongi Bridge, fifteen miles to the north, and from Mirpur- Jafarabad on the west some ten miles east to Postogola.
The Buriganga has originated from the Dhaleshwari near Kalatia. Its average width and depth are 400m and 10m respectively. This river is only 27 km long. The Turag River has joined the Buriganga at Kamrangirchar of Dhaka City. In fact, the main flow of the Buriganga comes from the Turag. It meets with the Dhaleshwari at Munshiganj. The present head of the Buriganga near Chhaglakandi has silted up and opens only during floods, but the lower part is still open throughout the year. The downstream junction with the Dhaleshwari fluctuates from time to time according to changes in the position of the latter river; at present, it lies about 3.22 km southwest of Fatullah. Its course by Dhaka is stable, fixed by the resistant clays marking the southern edge of the Madhupur Tract.
The Buriganga is economically very important to Dhaka. Launches and country boats provide connection to other parts of Bangladesh, a largely riverine country. When the Mughals made Dhaka their capital in 1610, the banks of the Buriganga were already a prime location for trade. The river was also the city's main source of drinking water.
Today, the Buriganga river is afflicted by the problem of pollution. The chemical waste of mills and factories, household waste, medical waste, sewage, dead animals, plastics, and oil are some of the Buriganga's pollutants. The city of Dhaka discharges about 4,500 tons of solid waste every day and most of it is released into the Buriganga. According to the Department of Environment, 21,600 cubic metres (5.7 million US gallons) of toxic waste are released into the river by the tanneries every day. Experts identified nine industrial areas in and around the capital city as the primary sources of river pollution: Tongi, Tejgaon,Hazaribagh, Tarabo, Narayanganj, Savar, Gazipur, Dhaka Export Processing Zone and Ghorashal. Most of the industrial units of these areas have no sewage treatment or effluent treatment plants (ETPs) of their own.
More than 60,000 cubic meters (2,100,000 cu ft.) of toxic waste, including textile dying, printing, washing and pharmaceuticals, are released into the main water bodies of Dhaka every day. According to the Dhaka Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA), about 12,000 cubic metres of untreated waste are released into the lake from Tejgaon, Badda and Mohakhali industrial areas every day. The waste mostly comes from garment washing and dyeing plants. Textile industries annually discharge as much as 56 million tonnes of waste and 0.5 million tonnes of sludge. Sewage is also released into the Buriganga. Because of Dhaka's heavy reliance on river transport for goods, including food, the Buriganga receives especially high amounts of food waste since unusable or rotting portions of fruits, vegetables, and fish are thrown into the river.
Nearly 4.0 million people of the city are exposed to the consequences of water pollution every day. Water pollution in the River Buriganga is as its highest. The most significant source of pollution appears to be from tanneries in the Hazaribagh area. In the dry season, the dissolved oxygen level becomes very low or non-existent and the river becomes toxic.
The network of 53 canals of Dhaka that once ran through the city and functioned as its water extraction and flood control system is now almost dead. A few of the surviving lakes and canals are also on the verge of extinction due to continuous encroachment, from a total lack of monitoring and maintenance. According to a study by Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, 84 percent of wetlands and water bodies in and around Dhaka have disappeared since 1947.
The government city map says that the Hazaribagh canal is three kilometres long and six to eight metre wide. In reality, however, the canal—which once linked the Buriganga River with the southern part of Dhaka city and was a busy trade route—is now no more than a narrow sewerage line. Local inhabitants have filled up the canal and constructed buildings and roads indiscriminately. The remaining, shrinking stream of the canal can be found inside a slum which is also about to be filled up with tonnes of garbage dumped on it every day. This process of encroachment of water bodies is being replicated in every part of the city.
Even the Hatirjheel-Begunbari project, which was one of Bangladesh's biggest water body restoration projects, has failed to preserve the water quality of two of the vital water bodies of the city. Untreated sewage water from all around the city is being poured into these lakes and their unbearable stink is adversely affecting the local population.
According to Natural Water Reservoir Conservation Act, 2000, all the canals and natural lakes of Dhaka have to be preserved by the state. However, no sustainable steps have been taken over the years to preserve and maintain these water bodies.
Asiya is around 40 (as she mentioned) and been in Kamalapur for about 20 years after she got married. She is from Khulna District, after her marriage, she moved to Dhaka with her husband and child. We asked her, what do you think about the water supply here? She smiled and said, ‘it’s getting worse day by day!’. We added, ‘we know that Khulna also have water problem, like the supply water is a bit salty’, she replied instantly, ‘at least the water is not contaminated!’.
Asiya has a small grocery shop on footpath, where she sells fresh fruits and vegetables to the locals. Her shop is quite popular as she maintained her quality despite the water problems! From all other candidates, she’s the only one who is a bit well-off. While talking, she mentioned that vegetables are daily needs and since I try to clean with fresh water, my customers are happy to buy from me every day. We asked her, how is she getting fresh and clean water? She said she either buys water for taka 1 per glass or taka 10 for every gallon at the local water supply; if the there’s no supply in the reservoir she travels far to fetch clean water. She said she once used the river water and it smelled! Her regular customers complained that if she does it again then all of them will boycott her.
She said that by the grace of Almighty, she and her family is quite happy apart from the water problem. Her husband is a rickshaw-puller and her daughter works in the nearby garments factory. She is the only one we met who had a comparatively better quality of life despite the water crisis!
aRana, like any other young man should be going to school and getting a proper education. At 12 years old, he’d rather be playing sports and pursuing other developmental activities. But because his family is poor he needs to earn a livelihood, so he sells lemonade in the street next to the Kamalapur Railway Station.
He lives in a densely populated village called Mughda which, like many others in Bangladesh, does not have access to clean water. Even though water is a necessity people living in these deprived areas have become accustomed to its absence. Given no other option, Rana is forced to use polluted water to make his lemonade. We were absolutely shocked to see that this boy uses contaminated water for his lemonade.
Both Rana and his customers know that drinking unhygienic water can lead to diarrhea or other water-borne diseases. We asked Rana, “Why can’t you use clean water?” In reply he said, “Sir, where will I get clean water?” and added, “The water looks clean enough. I do not see any fault in color and it smells right, and my customers are fine with it!” We were horrified to hear this so we asked, ‘Did you ever try to get clean water?’ He nodded and answered, “If I do that, then I have to increase the price. And if my price increases, I will lose my customers!’
It is truly disheartening to see this example of economic difficulty caused by degraded environmental conditions personified by a young man simply trying to help his family survive.
Later Rana mentioned about his younger brother Imam Hossain, who is only 2 years old. Imam’s health has been negatively impacted due to the contaminated water. Imam has mild skin lesions, frequent diarrhea and has recently been diagnosed with keratosis.
Keratosis is essentially harmless though the hard, tiny, light-colored bumps it causes on skin can change its texture to that of sandpaper. Sometimes there is swelling or reddishness and a feeling of itchiness associated with it. It happens when too much keratin builds up. It is unknown what triggers a buildup of keratin, but it blocks the opening of a hair follicle and can be associated with a lack of moisture. Keratin is a protective protein that can prevent infections. Though there is no preventing or curing keratosis, moisturizing skin can minimize its effects. When only contaminated water is available, however, other complications can arise.
Bodiul is a slum tenant, living close to the Buriganga River with his family. When asking him about the clean water access crisis, he said, ‘There is a water supply source by Dhaka WASA’ (Dhaka Water Supply & Seweage Authority) and added, ‘regardless of the source, pollution and viruses in the air make it impossible for the WASA authority to provide clean water’. The water in the region needs to be boiled before consumption. The slums do not get water supplied directly and there are always many people lined up to get water.
Bodiul spoke about the fact that many local shopkeepers have contaminated the water, by dumping trash into the river. According to him, many hotels in the area use the polluted river water to wash dishes and vegetables as well. We asked him, ‘did you not take any action?’ and he defended himself, ‘Sir we are poor, we cannot fight them and if we do they will trash us too’.
He also pointed out that while the distance from the water supply to the slum is not that far, getting to it is a hassle! The roads are not clean and the air is polluted. Even if the water were clean, it must be boiled before drinking. Every day there’s a huge line and sometimes it takes hours to refill one bottle! Bodiul, due to his financial situation cannot afford to buy bottled water from nearby shops. We asked ourselves, ‘Can’t we do something for these people who are struggling to get fresh, clean and hygienic water every day!’
We decided we must do something. First, we can raise awareness of the issue. This is why we share these stories from local citizens. Second, we can partner together to find solutions to provide access to clean water. To do this though, we must be bigger than any of us individually. We must stand together. We must bridge divides. We must find kind people who care and build partnerships. We must take Green Steps.